Tricon Geophysics is now offering a number of new products issuing from the release of Paradigm’s latest migration and analysis software – Earth Study 360© (ES360), which is integrated into Paradigm’s full suite of processing, imaging and analysis software. The heart of ES360 is a new family of imaging software centered around the development of Common Reflection Angle Migrations (CRAM). CRAM migration is a new depth migration imaging approach that significantly enhances the attributes contained in the migration products, allowing essentially in situ measurements of critically important aspects of subsurface lithology and structure.
Starting with a Geodepth velocity depth model, the CRAM migration process uses a powerful bottom up ray shooter that provides for four additional parameters to be assessed in addition to the correct imaging of the subsurface. The first pair is termed a reflection pair and includes opening angle (twice incident angle) and the azimuth of the normal, zero offset incident ray. The second pair is termed the directional pair and includes the dip and azimuth of the reflector at the subsurface point. After the migration is complete, a seven dimensional matrix is available for use in further characterizing the subsurface lithology or enhancing the image.
The primary output of the migrations is three different styles of gathers:
1) The CRAM Gathers retain incident angle information and are similar to typical depth angle gathers. These are useful for non-azimuthally dependent AVO analysis.
2) The second gather type is termed Reflection Gathers. These gathers are also depth angle gathers, but include source-receiver azimuth information measured at the subsurface image point. This gather type allows for in situ azimuth variation with azimuth (AVAZ) analysis of the volume. For the first time anisotropic analysis can be conducted on a seismic volume without resorting to layer stripping estimates from surface collected data geometries to correctly characterize the orientation and degree of anisotropy in a volume at any subsurface point. Additionally these gathers allow for the development of both Isotropic and Anisotropic Gradient volumes.
3) The third gather type is termed Directional Gathers. These gathers are not typical depth angle gathers. They retain dip angle and dip azimuth information. These gathers, with the addition of a weighting filter, provide for two new depth migration stack types. The Specular Weighted Stack provides the most continuous image, while retaining crisp faulting and sharp detailing of discontinuities. The Diffraction Weighted Stack provides the image with sharpest detail of faulting and lithologic discontinuities. The best volume for the interpreter is somewhere between the two endpoints and Tricon works closely with the interpreter to provide the best volume for the project.
Please see our presentation in the Papers & Presentations section of the website.
Papers & Presentations